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Fault Passage Indicators

Following an agreement signed with Horstmann’s Australasian master distributor MV Technologies, Horstmann Fault Passage Indicators are now available in New Zealand from HV Power. Short circuit and Earth Fault Indicators are used to identify faults within medium voltage networks. Also referred to as Fault Current Indicators, the devices are used to indicate if a fault current has been detected at that point of the network. By using devices installed at strategic points of the network, lines staff can quickly identify the network section where a fault resides, allowing them to concentrate on that section. Fault Passage Indicators can detect permanent and transient faults on feeder cables and overhead lines. Indication can be by the unit itself, or back to the control room via SCADA. As part of a Smart Grid system, selected units support the relaying of additional information such as load current and conductor temperature.


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FPI's for Cable and Switchgear

Opto E fault current indiicatr

Opto E earth fault indicator
FEATURES: LED Indication / Manual. Automatic, Remote Reset & Test / SCADA Contact / Cable Mounted CT's / Simple Retrofit Solution
Earth Trip Current Settings: (10, 20, 40, 80 / 40, 80, 120 or 160 A adjustable at CT)

The Opto E identifies low-level earth faults. This fault indicator is normally selected as an easy to install retrofit solution with cable mounted CTs. The Opto E can also be surface-mounted for retrofit applications and is interchangeable with all Horstmann optic fibre FPIs. It can be upgraded to include short-circuit indication with 3 additional cable-mounted CTs and an Opto F+E fault indicator.


Compass B Smart Grid

ComPass B Smart Grid Directional short circuit and earth fault indicator
The ComPass B is a directional short circuit indicator and earth fault indicator can identify directional short-circuit and directional earth fault. It has been designed and developed as a Smart Grid solution with load, voltage and other grid information also able to be sent via RTU and modem.

The ComPass B has an LED display and additional multicolor LED alarms, complete with a RS-485 MODBUS interface with the option of a RTU for DNP3. 

The ComPass B CTs can be either cable mounted or bushing mounted on switchgear. 

Fault Detection
  • Directional Short Circuit Detection (50 to 2,000 A) with the option of smart self-setting feature
  • Directional Earth Fault Detection (5 to 1,000 A)
Continuous Monitoring Functions
  • Load current
  • Voltage
  • Power 
  • cos φ
  • Frequency
  • Load flow direction

Now also available is the ComPass B 2.0 and BS. See here for more details.


FPI's for Overhead Lines

Navigator LM
NAVIGATOR LM fault passage indicator
Overhead fault passage indicators have become a major component of distribution networks as utilities try to reduce outage time and improve system reliability. The NAVIGATOR LM Fault Passage Indicator (FPI) offers self-adjusting trip ratings and can be used for identification of permanent or transient fault passage. These FPIs have stainless steel hardware and an ultraviolet inhibitor for long-lasting performance.

  • High visibility
  • Self-adjusting trip rating
  • Peak load memory
  • Permanent or momentary faults
  • 'Low battery' indication, with replaceable lithium cells (20 year monitoring life)
  • IP 68 rated
  • Hotstick shotgun installation

This self-powered FPI can be installed in seconds using a shotgun insulated stick and is armed and ready to operate.

The NAVIGATOR LM has a 100 A minimum trip rating with 0 to 30 A of load current and automatically adjusts its trip rating when load rises above 30 A. There are no settings or DIP switches - the unit adjusts automatically to the load current.

The NAVIGATOR LM recognises peak load current and will hold that trip rating for 72 hours offering complete inrush immunity. The units are powered by four replaceable lithium cells which offer over 20 years of shelf life and 500 hours of flashing life. A low battery LED indicator give crews six months to replace the cells.

Six super-bright LEDs are activated upon sensing fault current. Easily visible during the day or at night, the NAVIGATOR LM quickly allows line crews to locate the fault.

Several options are available for both permanent and momentary fault finding. All units can be reset manually with a magnet and automatically by time. Current and voltage reset options are also available.


Navigator LED+FLAG
NAVIGATOR LED+FLAG fault passage indicator
The NAVIGATOR LED+FLAG product, based on the SMART NAVIGATOR electronics, it offers a 50 A (100 ms) sensitivity, but highly visual mechanical flag and bright LED flash. The NAVIGATOR LED+FLAG is highly recommended to those looking for simple, low cost effective visual only indicator.


Smart Navigator
SMART NAVIGATOR fault passage indicator
The SMART NAVIGATOR overhead fault passage indicator (FPI) is designed and engineered for Smart Grid distribution automation applications. Installed on overhead distribution and sub-transmission lines, it transmits event-based fault information and continuous circuit status information via low power radio to a local receiver (The SMART REPORTER or KIWI REPORTER).

The FPI design allows easy installation and/or removal with a hot stick to the overhead conductor.

The SMART NAVIGATOR indicates a line fault locally by LED and also over a wireless radio link to the SMART REPORTER / KIWI REPORTER which makes this information available for remote monitoring via SCADA. This in turn drastically saves time in the identification of faulty line sections, by directing lines staff directly to the section, and substantially speeds up the process of restoring the power supply to the utility customers.

The SMART NAVIGATOR also continuously monitors and transmits network information, such as load current which helps identify distribution grid capacity. Information can be used to improve grid planning and to support analysis of predictive or post-fault switching decisions.

The FPI design allows easy installation and/or removal with a hot stick to the overhead conductor.



Smart Navigator
SMART NAVIGATOR HV fault passage indicator
Like above, but conductor temperature is also measured and reported to SCADA.





Smart Navigator HV DCFI
SMART NAVIGATOR HV DCFI directional fault passage indicator
This is also an 'HV' version measuring temperature, but in addition is a directional device, flashing red or green depending upon the fault direction. Ideal for use on ring circuits or lines with back feeds.




SMART REPORTER and KIWI REPORTER - SCADA communication interfaces
The SMART/KIWI REPORTER connects with up to 12 local SMART NAVIGATOR FPIs (approx. 30 m radius). This allows one SMART/KIWI REPORTER to cost effectively monitor T connections (main and spur) or double lines. The SMART/KIWI REPORTER communicates via DNP (serial or IP) allowing FPI's to be integrated into a smart grid system. The SMART REPORTER and KIWI REPORTER are differentiated by the battery capacity, enclosure construction and power of radio/modem they can support.

Smart Reporter KIWI REPORTER

Event-based reporting

Overhead SMART NAVIGATOR signals (to the SMART/KIWI REPORTER/SCADA system)

  • Fault detection
  • Momentary versus permanent fault detection
  • Fault current magnitude and duration
  • Time and date stamp
  • Loss of current alarm


  • Loss of its power supply
  • Health check alarms
  • Tamper detection
Continuous Reports (every 15 minutes)

Overhead SMART NAVIGATOR signals (to the SMART/KIWI REPORTER/SCADA system)

  • Line current (average, max and min current each 15 minutes)
  • Ambient temperature
  • Conductor temperature (with 'HV' versions of SMART NAVIGATOR)
  • Voltage presence (option 110 kV)
  • Routine call
  • Health check
  • Battery status

The SMART REPORTER is provided in a polyester enclosure, and supports low power modems (12V, <500 mA). An AC auxiliary supplied version and a solar powered version are available. The unit can be supplied with our recommended low power GPRS/GSM modem - or without.

The KIWI REPORTER is supplied in a stainless steel enclosure. Its larger battery and power supply capacity is designed to supports higher power radios (12V, 2 A) (customer supplied). An AC auxiliary supplied version and a solar powered version are also available.

Download our KIWI REPORTER Technical Data Sheet.


Smart Navigator 2.0 SWER
SMART NAVIGATOR 2.0 SWER - fault passage indicator
The SMART NAVIGATOR 2.0 SWER is powered by long-life lithium batteries. The 'SWER' unit will operate for approximately 15 years (including up to 400 hours of flashing!) on one set of field-replaceable batteries.

If remote communication is desired, a Pole Master can be fitted on the pole giving connection to the 4G network.

Designed for Single Wire Earth Return (SWER) systems, the 'SWER' can also be used on non-SWER systems. As the Pole Master can communicate to up to six nearby SWER devices, this allows the SWER to be used on very low-current three-phase circuits.

The SWER device can indicate fault currents as small as 6 A (with 100 ms duration), with a setting range of 6-100 A pick-up possible. PC software and USB wireless communication stick are used to set up the 'SWER' unit.

The FPI design allows easy installation and/or removal with a hot stick to the overhead conductor.

The SWER FPIs do not feature conductor temperature monitoring, and have once-per-day communications to SCADA (other than if a fault occurs, where the units will instigate immediate communications). *The SWER reports to iHost cloud software - accessible via protected web page. iHost can also be setup on a server and operated from within your own IT-network environment if desired. An advantage of the in-house iHost server is that it acts as a data concentrator providing a DNP interface for your SCADA system.

Smart Navigator 2.0 Master
SMART NAVIGATOR 2.0 (Master & Satellite) - fault passage indicator
The SMART NAVIGATOR 2.0 Master can be fitted with 4G SIM card to communicate fault and status information. Using low power radio with a 50 m radius the Master acts as a data concentrator for up to 5 nearby Satellite units. This allows one 'communication node' to monitoring two nearby 3 phase lines. SMART NAVIGATOR 2.0 Master and Satellite units are line current powered with built-in rechargeable batteries.

  • Master unit with inbuilt GSM modem – just add a SIM card to enable communication connectivity
  • Master unit communicates up to five Satellite units (within 50 m range)
  • Self-powered (+ 72-hour backup rechargeable battery) [requires a 5 A current (averaged over 24 hours) to maintain line-powered functions (with once per day communications). With greater than 40 A current, data reporting at 15-minute intervals becomes possible].
  • Load current and conductor temperature monitoring
  • Directions power flow and directional fault indication

Low power option (with above SMART NAVIGATOR 2.0):
SMART NAVIGATOR 2.0 uses line power to recharge batteries that drive the device’s electronics. However, where the line current is below the 5 A average current needed to enable direct GSM communication from the Master FPI, then it is possible to install three Satellite units that communicate to a ‘Pole Master’, pole mounted communication device. The Satellite units require an average of 1.5 A current to maintain their communication capability). Alternatively the 'SWER' units may be used - which are battery operated and have no minimum-current requirement.


Pole Master
Pole Master - SCADA interface
The Pole Master connects via low power radio to up to 6 x SMART NAVIGATORS 2.0's which can be located up to 50 m away (Either SMART NAVIGATOR 2.0 Satellites or 'SWER'). The Pole Master has a 4G modem to allow the SMART NAVIGATORs to be monitored via DNP*/iHost SCADA systems. The Pole Master is provided with a solar panel sufficient for powering the 4G modem and charging its 100 hour battery backup. The Pole Master can also be powered from an auxiliary source if desired.









Further information. See our Fault Passage Indicator Technical Library page for cross references and further information.